Our products are the result of years of research based on the latest science of the microbiome and probiotics.

A quick scroll through the site will give you an overview of our scientific lense and how bacteria affect you and your health.

[ Microbiome ]

What is the microbiome?

The microbiome is your body’s bacterial friends.

More precisely, it is the collective gene pool of all the microorganisms that live on and in your body. Most of these live in the gut, but many also live elsewhere on the body, e.g. on the skin and in the vagina. Together these microorganisms represent more than 50% of the total number of cells in your body.

A few of them are harmful (pathogens) but the vast majority are either harmless or even essential to you and your health (probiotics).

Are bacteria dangerous?       

No, quite the opposite. The majority are important to our health.

All bacteria being dangerous is one of our time’s greatest misunderstanding. Bacteria cannot be put into a single bucket. Of the millions of bacteria that exist, scientists only know about less than 100 that are pathogenic, i.e. harmful to humans.

The vast majority of the bacteria that live on and in us are essential to our basic physiological qualities, such as digesting our food, supporting our immune system, and overall maintenance of the health of our skin and body.

How did I get a microbiome? 

Initially, from your mom.

Recent research indicate that the beginning of your microbiome is shaped during your time as a fetus via the placenta. At first, we absorb microbes through our mother’s birth canal and anus when we’re born, as well through skin contact and breast milk.

From birth, the diversity and composition of the microbiome evolves with contact and interaction with the environment; when we’re with other people – or animals, when we eat or when we’re outside in nature.

Our microbiome consists of living organisms and is therefore always changing. Significantly changing the microbiome permanently is however difficult. Research indicates that our microbiome is shaped during the first few years of our lives, meaning that your microbiome as a 3-year-old will likely be very similar to your microbiome today. The microbiome is however still somewhat delicate and the balance can easily be interrupted so that proportions change and can allow pathogens to outcompete the good bacteria. On the skin, too much washing and cleansing and excessive use of different products can lead to imbalance.

What are bacteria actually doing in my body?

They are working for you.

There are few functions in your body in which bacteria is not involved in one way or the other. Either directly, through their metabolites (compounds produced by bacteria), or as part of a pathway (series of chemical reactions in the body)

Below illustration shows the pathways of one of our bacteria (LB244R®). You don’t have to understand the image, but you should probably understand that the role of bacteria in the body is not quite simple.

Bacteria keeps the skin healthy.

Bacteria are essential to your skin’s health. Lactic acid bacteria, for example, contribute by maintaining an acidic environment (ph ~4.5), which prevents pathogens from colonizing on the skin which can lead to dry skin, eczema, pimples and acne. There are, however, still open questions in the scientific field about the exact role of many of the microorganisms on the skin. A hypothesis is that they are part of the “innate immune system”; a term used in regards to the part of the immune system that you receive from birth, which is constant throughout life.

We also know that many microorganisms produce ceramide which is an important part of the skin’s barrier function that helps contain the moisture of the skin. Furthermore, microorganisms have an antioxidant effect which inhibits aging-related processes caused by free radicals and oxidation – in other words wrinkles and pigmentation.

Bacteria keeps the vagina healthy.

The vaginal microbiome is characterized by relatively low diversity compared to elsewhere on the body. It consists primarily of lactobacilli (lactic acid bacteria), especially of the species Lactobacillus crispatus, which maintains the essential, acidic ph-balance (~4.5 – same as many types of wine 😊), thus inhibiting the growth of microorganisms that can cause intimate problems. Even though a high microbial diversity is typically considered an indicator of health, it is opposite in the vaginal microbiome. When the dominating lactobacilli is replaced by other microorganisms it will often be considered a sign of dysbiosis which causes itchiness, irritation, bad odor or elevated levels of discharge.

Despite the low diversity of the vaginal microbiome, the microbiome’s composition will vary significantly from person to person. There are still plenty of unknown variables as to why these variations exist and how they’ve come to be. They are however affected by things such as ethnicity, age, regional origin, and more.

What is a healthy microbiome?

A healthy microbiome is characterized by high diversity and balance.

A balanced microbiome with a high bacterial diversity is important  for healthy skin and a healthy body. We live in a symbiotic relationship with our bacteria – we provide them food and shelter and they help us strengthen our immune system, protect against environmental stress, maintain the skin’s optimal acidity, produce important compounds and much more. All in all, they keep us healthy.

In modern society, we typically view skincare from a visual, cosmetic perspective but for the health of our body, it is essential to have strong fortifications – i.e. a balanced microbiome and barrier function – which amongst other things, prevent outside pathogens from penetrating the skin and harming the body.

Why is the diversity of our microbiome decreasing? 

We live too clean, eat poorly and are increasingly exposed to chemicals and antibiotics.

In Western society, we have lost approximately 30% of our gut bacteria compared to people who are more are exposed to natural surroundings, diet, and lifestyles. Today, the scientific field is occupied trying to figure out the exact functions of these missing bacteria. In the microbiome, almost 70% consists of the same few bacteria strains whereas the remaining 30% are made up of around 900 strains. Research indicates that the diversity of the remaining 30% is highly important and these are the ones we are in the process of eradicating.

How do I get a healthy microbiome?

Live healthy, avoid harmful chemicals, and use probiotics.

Generally, a varied, fiber-rich diet and exercise in nature are decent ways of maintaining a balanced microbiome. The most important however, is to stop negatively impacting the microbiome. Modern lifestyles lead to us living exceptionally clean and sterile and in daily contact with a range of unnecessary chemistry through skincare products, hair products, cleaning products, etc. Collectively all of this leads to imbalance in the microbiome. After you have washed your hands with generic soap, which kill bacteria, it takes several hours before your microbiome returns to normal. If this is repeated several times daily over a longer time-span, your microbiome won’t return to its natural balance, which in the long term can lead to problems; even chronically. This, of course, not to say you shouldn’t wash your hands, but to be mindful of why, when, with what and how often you expose your microbiome to this kind of disturbance.

An effective way of rebalancing and maintaining a healthy microbiome is using probiotics.

[ Probiotics ]

What are probiotics?

Probiotics are living bacteria that provide a health benefit.

The official definition of ’Probiotic’ was published in 2001 by a UN/WHU expert panel, defining it as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”

So what does that mean?

Live microorganism

This refers to the bacteria which is a microorganism. The bacteria being alive is essential here as some of the advantages of probiotic products comes from the bacteria being alive when you apply it as a consumer – not just when the product is produced since they may die before you get them. Keeping them alive is a tough challenge through production, storage, delivery and long enough for you who use the product.

Adequate amounts

It’s important that there is enough bacteria to make a difference. Our products contain 10^8 CFU (colony forming units) per milliliter. This means that each milliliter of the products contain 100.000.000 bacteria (100 million), which, through clinical trials, we know is enough to make a difference.

Health benefit

You can easily smear bacteria on your skin by going outside and rolling in the grass. There’s plenty of bacteria here. But will it do anything positive for your skin? To fulfill the definition of ‘probiotic’, the living microorganisms must have demonstrated a positive health benefit. This means that the specific bacteria added to the product must have clinically shown a difference.

The host

This is you – or any other person or animal using the probiotic 😊

Can’t I just use yoghurt or kefir then?

This will not guarantee any effect.

Technically, neither of those are probiotic. They both contain living microorganisms, but it is unclear which specific bacterial strains are in them, how many there are and whether these exact strains are clinically proven to have any effect in those quantities to confer any health benefit.

This does not mean that the old trick of smearing yoghurt in the face cannot have a cooling or soothing effect, or that eating yoghurt and drinking kombucha cannot have holistic health benefits. The difference is that we in our products have spent years of research finding the exact strains that work best against the specific purposes we seek to solve. We also make sure the bacteria are alive and in adequate amounts when you apply them.

I don’t have any specific problems – should I still use probiotics?


Your body and skin is a complex system. Even though people with specific problems will often experience results quicker, the bacteria will impact you in other ways. As an example, by strengthening the skin’s barrier function helping the skin retain moisture which i.e. makes the skin appear alive and healthy. The bacteria also stimulates the skin’s tight junctions (see dictionary for explanation), reducing wrinkles and fine lines.

Are more probiotics always better?

Not necessarily. The effect varies between the specific bacterial strains.

Maybe you've read about CFU (colony forming units), which is an indicator of how many live and active bacteria the product contains. The best dosage is the one that is tested and proven to confer health benefits.

Why are so many people talking about probiotics?

That’s a great question and especially the skincare industry is misusing the term

The term ’probiotic’ is often misinterpreted or misused in products that doesn’t live up to the definition. Probiotics is still a new area in which regulation is still being established which is why it sometimes becomes a marketing-gimmick. Unfortunately, this dilutes the actual science behind real probiotics. There is however new regulation coming which will make it much easier for you as a consumer to separate probiotics from marketing.

If you’re in doubt, it’s always a good idea to ask a brand whether there are live bacteria in the product when they reach your front door.

[ References ]

If you’ve read the above and are still curious to learn more, we suggest recommened the below reads:

Byrd, Allyson L., Yasmine Belkaid, and Julia A. Segre. 2018. “The Human Skin Microbiome.” Nature Reviews Microbiology 16 (3). Nature Publishing Group: 143–55.

Clausen, M. L., S. M. Edslev, P. S. Andersen, K. Clemmensen, K. A. Krogfelt, and T. Agner. 2017. “Staphylococcus Aureus Colonization in Atopic Eczema and Its Association with Filaggrin Gene Mutations.” British Journal of Dermatology 177 (5): 1394–1400.

Forum, Helle. 2018. Probiotika: En guide til dine gode bakterier. People´s Press ISBN 8772004797

Lebeer, Sarah, Peter A. Bron, Maria L. Marco, Jan Peter Van Pijkeren, Mary O’Connell Motherway, Colin Hill, Bruno Pot, Stefan Roos, and Todd Klaenhammer. 2018. “Identification of Probiotic Effector Molecules: Present State and Future Perspectives.” Current Opinion in Biotechnology 49 (November 2017). Elsevier Ltd: 217–23.

Nakatsuji, Teruaki, Tiffany H. Chen, Aimee M. Two, Kimberly A. Chun, Saisindhu Narala, Raif S. Geha, Tissa R. Hata, and Richard L. Gallo. 2016. “Staphylococcus aureus Exploits Epidermal Barrier Defects in Atopic Dermatitis to Trigger Cytokine Expression.” Journal of Investigative Dermatology 136 (11): 2192–2200.

Prince, Tessa, Andrew J. McBain, and Catherine A. O’Neill. 2012. “Lactobacillus Reuteri Protects Epidermal Keratinocytes from Staphylococcus Aureus-Induced Cell Death by Competitive Exclusion.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78 (15): 5119–26. doi:10.1128/AEM.00595-12.

Rather, Irfan A., Vivek K. Bajpai, Sanjay Kumar, Jeongheui Lim, Woon K. Paek, and Yong Ha Park. 2016. “Probiotics and Atopic Dermatitis: An Overview.” Frontiers in Microbiology 7 (APR): 1–7.

Sunada, Yosuke, Syoji Nakamura, and Chiaki Kamei. 2008. “Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus Strain L-55 on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice.” International Immunopharmacology 8 (13–14): 1761–66.

Totté, J. E.E., W. T. van der Feltz, M. Hennekam, A. van Belkum, E. J. van Zuuren, and S. G.M.A. Pasmans. 2016. “Prevalence and Odds of Staphylococcus Aureus Carriage in Atopic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” British Journal of Dermatology 175 (4): 687–95.

Mayer, F. L., Wilson, D., & Hube, B. (2013). Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms. Virulence, 4(2), 119-128.

Cassone, A. (2015). Vulvovaginal Candida albicans infections: pathogenesis, immunity and vaccine prospects. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 122(6), 785-794.

Bagnall, P., & Rizzolo, D. (2017). Bacterial vaginosis: a practical review. Journal of the American Academy of PAs, 30(12), 15-21.

[ Dictionary ]

Some words you know. Some are new.

Get up to speed with our dictionary on frequently used terms.

  • The microbiome is your body's microscopic friends.
    More precisely, the microbiome is the total gene pool of all the microorganisms that live on and in your body. Most of these live in the intestines, but many also live elsewhere on the body, including the skin and vagina. Altogether, these microorganisms represent more than 50% of the total cells in your body. A few are harmful (pathogens), but the vast majority are either harmless are downright essential to you and your health (probiotic).

    Read more
  • The microbiota is what most people call the microbiome.
    The microbiota is all the microorganisms that live on and in us humans. The microbiome is the total gene pool of these microorganisms.

    Confusing? Yes... Therefore, we also tend to stick to the term "microbiome", even though it is technically incorrect.

  • A group of organisms so small that you can only see them under a microscope. It includes organisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses and algae.

  • Single-celled microorganisms without a cell nuclei.
    Bacteria can be found everywhere in nature, on plants, animals and humans. A few bacteria are harmful, but the vast majority are either harmless or actually important to us and our health (probiotic).

  • Live bacteria that do something good for you.
    The official definition of "Probiotic" was publsihed in 2001 by a UN/WHO expert panel and defined as: ""live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host".

    Read more
  • Postbiotics are essentially dead bacteria.
    Postbiotics are much easier to work with for the manufacturer and can be used in water-based formulations, making them better for people looking for alternatives to oily formulations. The health promoting properties of beneficial microorganisms are traditionally associated with the live probiotic bacteria. In BAK, however, we have found a way of killing our live probiotic bacteria in a way that retains some of the health promoting benifits.

  • Food for the good bacteria
    Prebiotics are defined as "a substrate that is selectively utilized by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit". This means that prebiotics are nutrition for the good bacteria in and on the body. In everyday terms, prebiotics are considered "food" for probiotics and can be utilized to ensure the best conditions for probiotics to survive and colonize.

  • Your body's protective shield
    As the largest organ of the body, the skin serves as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection. This protection comes partly from a physical barrier (skin barrier function), but also the billions beneficial microorganisms colonizing the skin (microbiome). In circumstances where the barrier is broken or when the microbiome balance is disturbed, it can result in a variety of skin problems. Reversion of this dysbiosis (disruption to the microbiome) with probiotics may help better the condition of the skin.

  • The outermost layer of your skin
    The skin barrier or skin barrier function is the outermost layer of your skin that is responsible for retaining moisture and making sure to keep foreign bodies out. It consists of the outermost layer of skin cells (stratum corneum) plus the lipid matrix (ceramides, cholesterol and fatty acids) that hold these cells together. The cells can be described as bricks, where the lipid matrix is the mortar. As an example, atopic dermatitis is a skin disorder in which skin barrier function is reduced, allowing pathogens to cause problems such as dryness, redness and itching.

  • Tight junctions hold your skin cells together, real tight.
    They exist in the upper layer of the skin (Stratum granulosum) and are an important part of a well-functioning barrier function. Tight Junctions can be described as "rubber bands" that hold together the skin cells preventing moisture from evaporating from the skin from the inside and foreign bodies from penetrating the skin from the outside.